Clinical Dendritic Cell and Cell-Mediated Immunotherapy of Gliomas
DCs Generated Ex Vivo from Patients with MGs Are Phenotypically Normal and Capable of Generating Tumor Antigen-Specific CTLs. Drs. John Sampson, Eli Gilboa, and Darell Bigner have compared the phenotype and function of DCs generated ex vivo as described below from patients with MGs (n=12) with those from patients (n=7) undergoing craniotomy for other indications. There were no significant differences in the number of PBMCs recovered (P =0.82), the number of DCs generated (P =0.77), or the DC phenotype (P = 0.23). The cells generated from both groups were characterized as expressing basically undetectable levels of lineage markers CD3 (T-cells), CD19 (B-cells), CD56 (NK cells), and CD14 (macrophages) and high levels of HLA Class I and Class II, and the DC marker CD11c. Variable expression of CD80, CD86, and CD40 was seen in both groups without any significant differences before or after maturation. All DC preparations were free of bacteria, fungus, and Mycoplasma, and had <0.1 E.U. of endotoxin per 106 DCs. These data indicate that DCs generated ex vivo from patients with MGs meet or exceed all of the “standardized criteria” set forth in a recent review article as well as the standards acceptable to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in their Investigational New Drug (IND) application (BB-IND 9944).